The Belchen protrudes about 1,000 meters from the Muenstertal with its rugged, continuous steep slopes. Its northern slope is thus the region of highest relief intensity of the Central German Uplands. And on the southern side, the mountain's 800 meter rock ledge descends into the valley of the Kleine Wiese at Neuenweg.
At the Belchen only little remains of the undulating plateau which is still largely preserved in the eastern area of the Black Forest. Towards the Rhine valley and the Blauen, the western main ridge of the southern Black Forest is dissolved into narrow ridges through deep erosion by streams which in turn was the result of the mountains' strong rising in the Pleistocene. The Pleistocene glaciations of the Belchen region did not leave behind such distinct forms as at the Feldberg. Avalanche bowl glaciers formed on the northern and southern side whose maximum levels reached to the edge of the Black Forest.
The mountain top is made of granite, while the surrounding cliffs consist mainly of gneiss. Between the years 900 and 1975 the region around the Belchen was a major mining area at certain times.
There is a chain of well-preserved boundary stones from the year 1790 leading across the summit of the Belchen. At the time, this marked the border between the Habsburg Further Austria in the north and the Margraviate of Baden in the south of the mountain.
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